Abstract: With the high-quality development of China’s economy and the acceleration of energy transition, especially under China’s carbon peak targets by 2030 and carbon neutrality by 2060, China’s comprehensive energy service development is facing new situations and new requirements. Firstly, from the dimensions of energy customer demand, energy technology, energy service model, energy service format, energy policy, etc., study and judge the future development trend of China’s integrated energy service; , Industries, companies and other levels put forward corresponding measures and suggestions to provide decision-making reference for the high-quality development of China’s integrated energy services.

Keywords: integrated energy service; development trend; energy demand; energy technology; energy service format; service model; energy policy; carbon peak; carbon neutral

0 Preface

The transformation of the energy system and the upgrade of energy services are accompanied by mutual development. The transformation of the energy system is the physical basis and determines the development direction of the upgrade of energy services. With the deepening of China’s energy revolution, energy production methods and energy consumption concepts have undergone profound changes. Energy production extends from the supply side to the end user side, and the energy consumption concept has changed from energy supply to energy services. In this context, integrated energy services came into being. Integrated energy service is a behavior that is oriented towards the end of the energy system and is oriented to user needs, through energy variety combination or system integration, energy technology or business model innovation, etc., to improve user benefits or satisfaction. As an advanced form of energy service, integrated energy service aims to provide energy solutions that conform to the direction of energy development and meet the actual needs of users. It is an important measure to promote the energy revolution [1-2]. At the same time, integrated energy services can effectively improve energy efficiency and promote the use of clean energy. The vigorous development of integrated energy services will be the key focus of advancing China’s low-carbon energy development, achieving the carbon peak goal by 2030 and the carbon neutral vision by 2060.

In recent years, energy and power companies such as State Grid Corporation of China have actively deployed integrated energy services, accelerated the expansion of related businesses, and promoted the rapid development of China’s integrated energy services. At present, China is committed to building a new development pattern, green and low-carbon development of energy and power is imperative, and China’s integrated energy services are facing a new development situation.

From the perspective of economic development, China’s macro-economy is shifting from rapid growth to high-quality development. The consumption structure will shift from commodity consumption to a dual drive of commodity consumption and service consumption. Reflecting in the energy consumption field, energy users will have an increasingly urgent demand for high-quality energy services, driving the further release of demand for integrated energy services, and putting forward higher requirements on the service quality, technological innovation, and business models of integrated energy services. At present, China is accelerating the formation of a new development pattern with domestic and international double cycles as the main body and mutual promotion of domestic and international double cycles. The internal cycles of technology, consumption, and industry are gradually connected, which will further stimulate the potential of the integrated energy service market.

From the perspective of energy and power development, China’s carbon peak and carbon neutral goals are forcing energy to accelerate the green and low-carbon transition. It requires the promotion of high-quality energy development in the direction of “optimizing structure, improving efficiency, ensuring safety, and reducing costs”. At this stage, China’s fossil energy still accounts for a relatively high proportion. In 2019, fossil energy accounted for 84.7% of primary energy consumption[3]; large-scale development of renewable energy and optimization of the energy system structure have become an inevitable requirement for energy transition. Under China’s new carbon neutral vision for 2060, the concept of energy conservation, emission reduction, quality improvement and efficiency will accelerate its penetration into various fields; however, China’s energy consumption intensity still lags behind that of developed countries. In 2018, the unit GDP (GDP) energy consumption intensity is 2.7 times that of major countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) [3], and reducing energy consumption has become the main theme of China’s energy transition and development. China’s oil and natural gas resources are highly dependent on foreign sources. In 2019, the foreign dependence on oil and natural gas was 71% and 43% respectively[3]. The energy security situation is not optimistic, especially in the post-new crown epidemic era, the international environment China faces With increasing complexity, energy security issues have become more prominent, and ensuring energy security has become a fundamental requirement for energy development at the national level. As energy becomes a key influencing factor of political and economic development, the importance of energy costs has become more and more prominent. Cost reduction will be an important manifestation of energy development benefiting the economy and society and become an important task of energy transformation. As the energy transition continues to deepen, comprehensive energy services will usher in new opportunities for historical development, and will also face new trends and new requirements.

Under the above background, this article firstly based on China’s economic development situation and the direction of energy transition, from the five dimensions of demand, technology, model, business format, and policy, it studies and judges the development trend of China’s comprehensive energy services. Secondly, it analyzes the key issues of China’s comprehensive energy development and proposes corresponding solutions.

1 Research on the future development trend of integrated energy services

In recent years, integrated energy services have become the focus of expansion of the strategic layout of energy companies. With the high-quality development of the economy and the acceleration of energy transformation, the integrated energy service industry will present five major development trends: continuous emergence of demand, technological breakthroughs and innovations, iterative model evolution, vigorous business development, and gradual improvement of policies.

1.1 Demand continues to emerge

The integrated energy service market has great potential, and industrial parks and public buildings are key targets suitable for developing integrated energy services. With changes in the economic situation and expansion of service targets, new demands for comprehensive energy services will continue to emerge, driving the continuous release of market potential. It is estimated that by 2025, the scale of China’s integrated energy service market will reach one trillion yuan [4].

1.1.1 The new situation creates new demands

As China’s macro-economy enters a stage of high-quality development, energy users have increasingly urgent demands for high-quality energy services, and energy demand presents two major characteristics: integration and customization. On the one hand, new elements such as distributed power sources and energy storage have appeared in large numbers, and the complexity of user energy management has increased significantly. Energy service providers are required to provide a “package” of energy solutions, such as energy hosting[5], energy integrated supply[6], etc. ; On the other hand, users’ energy demand has obvious localization and individualization characteristics, requiring energy services to rely on advanced information technologies such as the “Big Cloud Mobile Smart Chain” to provide customized services, such as customized program design, smart energy management and control [7] etc. Driven by the characteristics of integrated and personalized energy use, integrated and customized energy solutions will become the main development direction of integrated energy services.

China is accelerating the formation of a new development pattern of “dual cycles”, with the internal cycles of science and technology, consumption, and industry being gradually integrated. The integration of the technological internal cycle will drive breakthroughs in cutting-edge technologies that are key to integrated energy services such as multi-energy coupling and complementation [8-9], smart energy management and control, and provide a wealth of means for integrated energy service industry innovation and stimulate potential demand. The integration of the internal consumption cycle will stimulate China’s domestic demand potential and stimulate domestic consumption. As part of the domestic super-large market, integrated energy services will continue to release demand following the trend. The integration of the internal industry cycle will stabilize the optimization of the industrial chain, supply chain, and value chain, support the ecological development of the integrated energy service industry, and attract users with better services.

1.1.2 New infrastructure creates new demand

In 2020, the central government will intensively introduce policies related to the construction of new infrastructure, including 5G, new energy vehicle charging piles, big data centers, artificial intelligence, industrial Internet and other high-tech fields. As new objects of energy services, 5G base stations and data centers have the characteristics of high energy consumption and integrated energy demand, which brings potential demand for integrated energy service segments such as energy efficiency improvement and multi-energy supply.

On the one hand, the power consumption of a single 5G base station is 2.5 to 3.5 times that of a single 4G base station, and the average power usage effectiveness (PUE) of China’s data centers is 2.2 to 3.0, all of which are high energy-consuming objects. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out energy efficiency services such as energy consumption analysis and diagnosis for new types of infrastructure such as data centers and 5G base stations, explore energy consumption problems, and propose energy efficiency improvement solutions.

On the other hand, the total demand for electricity and cold energy in data centers is large. In 2018, China’s data centers consumed approximately 160.9 billion kW·h of electricity, accounting for 2.35% of the entire society’s electricity consumption that year, of which 95 More than% is converted into cold energy. At the same time, data centers and 5G tower base stations usually need to be equipped with backup power sources such as energy storage to ensure communication and computing service capabilities. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out multi-energy supply services to meet the comprehensive energy demand for electricity and cooling of data centers, and the energy storage and renewable energy needs of 5G base stations.

1.2 Technology accelerates breakthroughs

The integrated energy service industry covers many professional technical fields, mainly including single technology, multi-energy coupling technology, and energy digital technology. With the in-depth advancement of the new round of technological revolution, various technologies will continue to innovate and make breakthroughs, providing more abundant technical means for comprehensive energy service model and business innovation.

1.2.1 Single technology

A single technology mainly refers to a certain sub-field technology that supports the development of integrated energy services. Relying on continuous breakthroughs in basic theories and key materials, individual technologies will develop towards higher efficiency and lower cost. The technologies to focus on include electrochemical energy storage technology [10-11] and micro gas turbine technology [12].

Electrochemical energy storage technology is of great significance to promote the consumption of renewable energy and improve the regulation capacity of the energy system. However, at present, the capacity, safety, service life, and charging and discharging flexibility of electrochemical energy storage still need breakthroughs and improvements. It is necessary to tackle key problems in ion exchange membranes and electrode materials, electrolyte composition, and orderly charging and discharging. In the future, with advances in materials and costs, the application scale of electrochemical energy storage will continue to rise.

Micro gas turbine technology is the core technology to improve the reliability of users’ energy systems. The development of micro gas turbines in China started relatively late and is still in the stage of system development, product development and demonstration. The focus is on key components, machine manufacturing, and fuel efficient and clean combustion to improve the high temperature resistance of component materials, compressor performance, and combustion chamber efficiency to support the efficient use of natural gas in the integrated energy system.

1.2.2 Multi-energy coupling technology

Multi-energy coupling technology focuses on key links such as multi-energy conversion and multi-energy supply. As the end energy system gradually expands the demand for efficiency improvement through multi-energy co-supply and multi-energy complementation, multi-energy coupling technology will usher in rapid development. The technologies to focus on include district combined heat and power technology [13-14] and power to gas (P2G) technology [15-16].

At present, a new generation of regional combined heat and power technology with the fourth-generation heating technology as the core is booming. 65% of buildings in Denmark use this technology to meet more than 50% of the country’s heating demand and part of the power supply demand. This technology uses low water temperature heating (such as 55°C water supply and 26°C return water), and uses a large number of terminal auxiliary heat sources such as heat pumps and electric heating; at the same time, the fuel of the cogeneration plant is mainly composed of biomass fuel and makes full use of solar energy. , Geothermal and other renewable energy sources. This technology breaks the operating mode of “heat-fixed electricity” in cogeneration plants, realizes thermo-electrolytic coupling, and fully releases flexibility; adopts a large number of heat pumps, electric heating and other terminal auxiliary heat, and the overall energy efficiency of the system is 30 higher than that of traditional centralized heating. % Above; At the same time, the technology’s ability to accept a high proportion of renewable energy provides support for sustainable energy development. With China’s increasing emphasis on the development and utilization of renewable energy, and users’ pursuit of higher heating and power supply efficiency, this technology will become a core technology that supports the development of integrated energy services and multi-energy supply businesses.

P2G technology includes electricity production of hydrogen, electricity production of methane and other technologies. P2G technology can “connect” the power sector with major energy-consuming sectors such as industrial production, building cooling and heating, and transportation, which is to achieve deep coupling of heterogeneous energy networks The key is also an important measure to promote the decarbonization of the entire energy system. However, P2G technology is currently facing problems such as low gas production efficiency, insufficient gas storage density, and short service life of gas storage equipment. It is urgent to tackle key problems in catalysts and gas storage materials. With the gradual maturity of electrolyzed water technologies such as proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen (proton exchange membrane, PEM) and the continued decline in the cost of new energy power generation, P2G technology advancement and cost reduction will be promoted, and related market segments will develop rapidly in the future.

1.2.3 Energy Digital Technology

Energy digital technology aims to use digital information technology to improve the level of intelligence in energy system operation control and market transactions. With the accelerated integration of advanced information and communication technologies such as the “Big Cloud Mobile Smart Chain” with the energy system, comprehensive energy services will be promoted towards the development of in-depth integration of information and physics. The technologies to focus on include smart energy management and control technology based on the Internet of Things [17-18], energy blockchain technology [19] and so on.

Smart energy management and control technology based on the Internet of Things is rapidly developing around the world. For example, Germany has built a three-tiered “bottom-middle-top” architecture in the EUREFCampus park energy station project (see Figure 1). From a technical perspective, smart measurement and smart analysis are the core technologies for smart energy management and control. Intelligent measurement technology urgently needs technical research in smart sensors, information interfaces, information communication, etc., to solve the real-time and accurate collection of multiple data, communication between different sensing devices, and real-time and efficient transmission of information, providing efficient, safe and ubiquitous Information measurement capabilities. Intelligent analysis technology urgently needs to tackle key problems in multi-energy coupling conversion relationship analysis and user energy consumption and transaction behavior analysis to solve the problem of real-time analysis and mining of massive data. Smart energy management and control technology is an important manifestation of the highly integrated development of energy flow and information flow. Promoting the integrated energy service business to meet the customized and diversified needs of users in a more green and efficient way will become one of the core businesses of integrated energy services in the future.

Energy blockchain technology is an important technology to control massive amounts of distributed energy, support its interaction, mutual assistance, and collaborative optimization. Energy blockchain technology urgently needs to tackle key problems in smart contracts, consensus mechanisms, encryption algorithms, etc., to solve the problems of distributed recording and storage of energy dispatch and transaction information, and extensive sharing of energy data, so as to form a comprehensive energy system supply and demand The relevant credit system promotes the flexible development of comprehensive energy transactions and the efficient coordination of supply and demand. Currently, energy blockchain technology is mostly used in the fields of distributed power generation transactions, electric vehicle charging transactions, and distributed energy management. In the future, it is expected to further expand to carbon trading, electric vehicle time-sharing leasing, and energy asset security management and control.

1.3 Continuous innovation of the model

The integrated energy service business mainly includes three types of businesses: single, integrated, and platform. Monolithic businesses focus on a single solution in the field of integrated energy service segments, such as distributed photovoltaics, electric vehicle charging piles, waste heat and pressure utilization [20], energy-saving lighting [21], etc. The integrated business focuses on integrated and systematic energy solutions, such as integrated park energy supply [22-23], building green energy systems [24], and home smart energy systems [25]. Platform-based businesses focus on matching supply and demand, information sharing, and capital circulation, such as integrated energy service platforms.

Electricity-centered and single-type businesses are developing towards integration, and the use of an integrated approach to meet the diverse energy needs of users has become the general trend of integrated energy service businesses. At the same time, with the deep integration of Internet technology and energy technology, the platform-based development model will play an increasingly important role in the development of the integrated energy service industry.

1.3.1 Centered on electricity

From the perspective of energy production, renewable energy is mainly converted into electric energy for use, and relying on the large power grid to provide sufficient and reliable clean energy. From the perspective of energy supply links, electric energy can be connected to key elements in integrated energy systems such as distributed photovoltaics, combined cooling and heating, energy storage, and heat pumps, and achieve flexible and efficient control. It is a key medium for achieving multi-energy complementarity. From the perspective of energy consumption, electric energy can be converted into heat, mechanical, and light energy through equipment such as electric boilers, motors, and light bulbs. The conversion efficiency excluding light energy is more than 90% (light energy is about 30%), which can efficiently meet diverse needs. End demand. On the whole, electric energy can reliably configure renewable energy on a large scale, and at the same time has the characteristics of flexibility and high efficiency, and will become the dominant energy source that links the entire process of energy production, supply and consumption. Therefore, the development of integrated energy services centered on electricity (as shown in Figure 2) will be an inevitable choice that suits China’s national conditions and energy development trends.

1.3.2 Monolithic to integrated development

The integrated service model has two major characteristics: horizontal and vertical integration; vertical integration refers to the power itself, breaking link barriers, promoting the coordinated development of “source network load storage” and power customization business expansion; horizontal integration refers to the radiation of electric energy to other energy sources, breaking System barriers promote multi-energy complementary integrated energy system integration and cross-energy category service upgrades. The integrated service model can significantly improve energy utilization efficiency, while achieving intensive use of resources such as land, and evolving and upgrading the integrated energy service business form to “systematization”. It is the main service model to meet the diverse energy needs of users in the future.

1.3.3 Platform Mode

Currently, the development of the integrated energy service industry faces three major pain points: difficulties in matching supply and demand, limited resource integration capabilities, and insufficient mutual trust between supply and demand. In terms of supply and demand matching, integrated energy services are highly specialized, and users cannot realize their own energy optimization potential in time, resulting in potential energy demand; at the same time, integrated energy services have a long service cycle, with a single project execution period ranging from several months to several Ten years has led to user demand with low frequency; the potential and low frequency of user demand has made it difficult to match supply and demand. In terms of insufficient resource integration capabilities, the integrated energy service business covers energy production, supply, operation and maintenance, and finance. Most integrated energy service providers do not have full technical and full-link service capabilities, especially in the fields of operation and maintenance, finance, etc. Obtain professional support, improve its own resource integration capabilities, and reduce energy service implementation costs. In terms of mutual trust between supply and demand, service providers lack an understanding of users’ ability to pay, and users lack a systematic understanding of service provider’s project construction and operation capabilities, resulting in low mutual trust between supply and demand.

In order to solve the three major pain points, there is an urgent need to use a platform model to promote information docking, resource exchange, and building a credit system to support the high-quality development of the integrated energy service industry.

From the perspective of platform construction, it is necessary to focus on the three elements of core algorithms, supporting services, and credit system. (1) Based on data processing and analysis technologies such as big data and cloud computing, develop core algorithms to discover potential demand and match supply and demand transactions. (2) Through platform supporting services, basic resources such as data and financial, consulting, and operation and maintenance services are shared to meet the common needs of service providers and achieve resource integration and cost reduction. (3) Build a user-service provider two-way credit system to build a bridge of trust between service providers and users; provide explicit indicators such as service provider credit ratings on the user side to fully understand the service capabilities of the service provider and provide it on the service provider side Services such as user payment ability evaluation and fund guarantee provide guarantee for long-term energy services.

From the perspective of the integrated energy service platform architecture shown in Figure 3, it should be aimed at the functional requirements with scale benefits such as matching transactions, industry chain finance, shared operation and maintenance, and business underlying IoT solutions to form a multi-level and three-dimensional platform. The energy system mainly includes transaction modules, financial operation and maintenance support modules, and Internet of Things service modules.

The trading sub-platform aims to establish a supply-demand matching platform that connects customers and service providers, promotes matching of supply and demand, guides service providers, and realizes shallow empowerment. The trading sub-platform provides service providers with online product display windows, attracting a large number of customers to view and compare online, and then analyze and identify their needs based on customer retrieval and browsing data, and effectively guide service providers through smart push and other methods.

The financial and operation and maintenance support sub-platform aims to create support for key links in the industrial chain, promote upstream and downstream collaboration, accelerate the overall development of the industry, and achieve mid-level empowerment. The financial and operation and maintenance support sub-platforms aggregate relevant resources to create a professional service platform to provide project location support for a large number of companies focusing on subdivisions and with professional and technical advantages, and promote the coordinated development of upstream and downstream industry chains.

The IoT service sub-platform aims to provide IoT solutions at the bottom of the project, provide service providers with basic support for technology and business model innovation, and achieve deep empowerment. The Internet of Things service sub-platform adopts unified interface and communication standards, and has modules such as sensing, network, cloud computing, control, and display. Through data connection with the transaction sub-platform, it can provide service providers with basic development systems or mature customizations. Integrate end-to-end solutions to support the rapid deployment of service providers’ business solutions.

1.4 The business is booming

The comprehensive energy service industry has a long chain and numerous market players, and it is necessary to fully integrate Internet thinking and concepts to create new business formats, as shown in Figure 4. The core of building a comprehensive energy service format is to focus on users’ energy-saving, cost-reduction and value-added high-quality energy service needs, and to graft Internet technology through “integrated energy services + Internet”, reshape the value chain and industrial chain, and create cross-industry integration, online and offline integration , A new business organization form integrating energy, information, finance and other elements. Various entities realize online information exchange and supply-demand matching through the Internet platform, and realize offline resource integration and business development through methods such as mixed ownership and industrial alliances, and jointly create a “co-construction, sharing, and win-win” comprehensive energy service ecosystem .

In terms of mixed ownership, the implementation of mixed ownership will help gather the strengths of all parties and accelerate the implementation of projects. By uniting industry leading enterprises, financial institutions, owners, etc., with project companies as the main carrier, we can cooperate in comprehensive energy projects with high investment risks and high technical complexity, such as energy station investment and construction, and multi-energy energy trusteeship. The project company adopts the method of “diversification of asset ownership + professional operation and maintenance” to achieve a win-win situation for multiple parties; state-owned capital and private capital jointly invest in the construction of integrated energy projects, and hold project assets based on the investment ratio; project main equipment, transmission and distribution facilities Equipment manufacturers and power companies are responsible for professional operation and maintenance.

In terms of industry alliances, industry associations and leading companies should actively leverage their advantages in resource integration, accelerate ecological construction, and promote industry development. In 2019, State Grid Corporation of China initiated the establishment of the China Integrated Energy Service Industry Innovation Development Alliance, China Huadian Group initiated the establishment of an integrated energy service ecosystem, and the Shandong New Energy Industry Association initiated the establishment of the Shandong Integrated Energy Service Industry Alliance and other integrated energy service industry alliances. , Which has aroused widespread concern and positive response from the society, and will effectively promote the interactive exchange of politics, business, industry, learning, research, and application.

1.5 Policies are gradually improved

The integrated energy service industry has the characteristics of high industry barriers and intensive capital and technology. The reform of the energy system must be led by the government. The development of technology and industry needs to be guided by the government’s planning and the collection of funds needs subsidy policies to guide. Therefore, the development of the integrated energy service industry has strong policy-driven demand.

During the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, the central government has successively issued policy documents such as multi-energy complementary integration, clean heating, and other provincial governments in Zhejiang and Hainan have also successively issued local guidelines such as dual control of energy intensity and total volume, and comprehensive energy reform plans. The main points of the policy are shown in Table 1. On the whole, in recent years, the national and local provincial and municipal governments have paid high attention to the development of integrated energy, and the supporting policies have shown the characteristics of encouraging multi-energy complementary and integrated development and paying attention to industrial planning.

Multi-energy complementary and integrated development is the focus of improving the quality and efficiency of comprehensive energy services. Under the energy system reform idea of ​​“controlling the middle and liberalizing the two ends”, the new round of power system reform, transmission and distribution price reform, oil and gas system reform and other related policies will be further improved, and barriers between different energy sources will be gradually broken to promote The integration of terminal energy systems promotes comprehensive energy efficiency improvement and energy service upgrades.

Industrial development planning is the key to pointing out the development direction and prospects of the integrated energy service industry. With the increasing improvement of related industry plans such as renewable energy development plans, energy storage development plans, and electric vehicle development plans, it will further promote investment and technological progress in the integrated energy service industry, and will also help the research and formulation of special plans for integrated energy services . At the same time, the gradual improvement of relevant industry plans will promote the formulation and introduction of relevant fiscal and tax subsidy policies, and promote the development of the integrated energy service industry.

2 Key issues in the development of integrated energy services

2.1 Analysis of key issues

China proposes to build a clean, low-carbon, safe and efficient energy system. Improving energy efficiency is an essential requirement for energy system operations. The development of integrated energy services is an important starting point for improving energy efficiency. China has proposed a carbon neutral vision in 2060. The concept of energy saving, emission reduction, quality improvement and efficiency will accelerate its penetration into all walks of life. Energy users have an increasingly urgent need for energy efficiency improvement. But at present, the development of China’s integrated energy service is facing the contradiction between the demand for energy efficiency improvement and the enterprise’s pursuit of efficiency, which has become a prominent contradiction restricting the sustainable development of the integrated energy service industry and needs to be resolved urgently.

(1) After rapid development in recent years, the integrated energy service industry has already possessed a huge industrial scale and rich business content, but at the same time, there are still problems of unfocused development and unclear direction. At present, under pressure from technology and capital, energy service providers tend to develop integrated energy service businesses with relatively low technical requirements and relatively mature models such as distributed energy and equipment energy-saving transformation. There is a low level of enthusiasm for the integrated business that has high technical requirements and immature models for multi-energy coordinated integrated supply and green energy systems, but can greatly improve the energy efficiency of the terminal energy system.

(2) Comprehensive energy service points are wide-ranging, covering many professional and technical fields, and the industrial chain and service cycle are long. It is difficult for small and medium-sized energy service providers to have all-tech and all-link service capabilities, and they dare not easily touch the field of integrated energy services. Large-scale energy service providers focus on their own development and use their customers, technology, capital and other advantages to try to integrate their own full-tech and full-link service capabilities, which makes it difficult to break industry barriers and restricts the further improvement of comprehensive energy service quality.

(3) China has a large number of high energy users such as industrial/enterprise parks and large public buildings, and there is huge room for improvement of internal energy efficiency. New parks and public buildings are also key areas for energy efficiency improvement. However, energy efficiency improvement projects in parks and large public buildings are generally asset-heavy investments, with the characteristics of large initial investment, long payback period, and low return on investment. Market entities still have concerns.

2.2 Solutions

To solve the contradictions facing the development of China’s comprehensive energy services, the government, industry, and enterprises need to form a joint force, and policies, models, and technologies should be multi-pronged, and strive to balance the relationship between the national energy efficiency improvement goals and the economic benefits of enterprises, and promote the comprehensive energy service industry Sustainable and healthy development.

2.2.1 Government policy

At the government level, support policies related to comprehensive energy services should be further improved. Focus on industrial development support, financial support, etc., through the formulation and introduction of comprehensive energy service industry plans, fiscal and tax subsidies and other policies to indicate the development direction of comprehensive energy services and stimulate market players’ enthusiasm for investment.

In terms of industrial development support, the central government has incorporated comprehensive energy services into the “14th Five-Year” overall plan, studied and formulated special plans for the “14th Five-Year”, and clarified the development ideas, goals, key tasks and implementation paths of comprehensive energy services. The central and local governments at all levels deepen the energy system reform process, further break down barriers in the oil and gas, heat, and power industries, support the construction of a user-side integrated energy system, and encourage integrated energy supply in the form of diversified equity investment and mixed ownership to support energy Structural optimization and energy efficiency improvement.

In terms of financial support, governments at all levels have increased financial and tax subsidies for comprehensive energy service businesses that have good environmental and social benefits, but are currently inadequate in economy, and guide resource input from all parties to promote relevant technological progress, model innovation, and efficiency enhancement. At the same time, governments at all levels have actively established a credit system, stabilized market expectations, and made efforts from both sides of supply and demand to guide enterprises and parks and other large energy consumers to actively “open the door” and comprehensive energy service providers to actively “walk in”.

2.2.2 Industry countermeasures

At the industry level, it is necessary to accelerate the construction of an integrated energy service industry ecosystem and standardization. In terms of ecosystem construction, state-owned energy companies must fulfill their social responsibilities and responsibilities, and leading private energy companies must play a leading role in driving upstream and downstream equipment manufacturers, Internet companies, communication service companies, scientific research institutes, and financial institutions in an open and collaborative manner. The company’s coordinated development will accelerate the reshaping of the integrated energy service value chain and industrial chain, and create an integrated energy service ecosystem of co-construction, co-governance and sharing; industry-leading companies accelerate the creation of an industry-level integrated energy service platform to achieve in-depth information sharing, full resource convergence, Efficient connection between supply and demand promotes the overall high-quality development of the industry. In terms of standardization construction, the comprehensive energy service-related industry associations actively take the lead and combine the experience of various market entities to accelerate the development of comprehensive energy service-related technology, operation and management standards, improve the overall service quality, and promote the rapid and sustainable development of the industry.

At the same time, industry-leading companies should accelerate the creation of a number of demonstration projects, focusing on high-value users such as hospitals, universities, office buildings, and parks, and plan a group of comprehensive energy resources that can effectively serve users, reduce costs and increase efficiency, and have broad economic and social benefits. Serving typical projects, providing small and medium energy service providers with project solutions that can be used for reference and replication.

2.2.3 Corporate Countermeasures

At the enterprise level, it is necessary to formulate long-term integrated energy service business development goals. Focus on the assessment mechanism, operation mechanism, etc., to balance the short-term and long-term benefits of the company, the economic benefits of the company, and the social responsibility for improving energy efficiency.

In terms of the assessment mechanism, we will take overall consideration of the short-term market and long-term business layout, and establish comprehensive energy service project assessment indicators based on the entire life cycle of the project. In view of the technical difficulties and high initial investment of integrated energy supply and smart energy management and control in the park, comprehensive energy service projects that can effectively promote energy efficiency improvement, through the development of a life cycle revenue assessment mechanism, foster rapid development of such businesses. At the same time, it is necessary to take into account the social and environmental benefits brought about by comprehensive energy service projects, and establish an evaluation index system that includes comprehensive economic, social, and environmental benefits. In terms of operating mechanism, energy companies should avoid selecting comprehensive energy service projects with short-term income as the first goal, focus on business model innovation, use a mixed ownership model, and adopt a method of “diversified asset ownership + professional operation and maintenance” to develop comprehensive energy services project. Companies with professional advantages in energy and power should devote themselves to long-term operational services to obtain stable and sustainable operating income.

2.2.4 Project implementation

At the project level, further strengthen the support of advanced technologies and models for comprehensive energy service projects. In terms of technology, the efficiency improvement of single energy equipment has been relatively limited. It is necessary to accelerate the promotion of the integration of energy technology and information technology, and organically connect various energy equipment through advanced information technologies such as the “big cloud mobile smart chain” to build equipment-level integration Energy management and control platform to achieve system integration and efficiency improvement. In terms of model, the stock market promotes the “first transformation + second optimization” model, replaces old equipment, installs sensing equipment and digital control systems, and achieves quality and efficiency improvement through system-level optimization operations; incremental market promotion “integrated The “integrated supply + integrated smart management and control” model intervenes in the planning process to achieve the integration of planning and design, investment and construction, and operation and management.

3 Conclusion

First of all, this article takes China’s macroeconomic development situation and the direction of energy transformation as the starting point to study and judge the future development direction of China’s integrated energy services, and clarify that China’s integrated energy service industry will show continuous emergence of demand, technological breakthroughs and innovations, iterative evolution of models, and vigorous business development. Five major development trends including gradually improving policies.

Secondly, this article analyzes the key issues in the development of China’s integrated energy services, and points out that the prominent contradiction facing China’s integrated energy service development is the contradiction between the demand for energy efficiency improvement and enterprises’ pursuit of short-term benefits. On this basis, around different levels of government, industry, enterprises, projects, etc., from financial support, ecosystem and standardization construction, operation model optimization, technical support and other dimensions, corresponding countermeasures are proposed to serve the high-quality development of China’s integrated energy services Provide support.

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